As a result of the distillation of crude oil, many intermediates and fuel products which we use in our daily life are obtained by separating (distilling) into its components in refineries.
Liquid hydrocarbons formed by metamorphism of organic material in the earth and stored in porous rocks are called crude oil.
The “raw” term at the beginning of petroleum is a raw material and indicates that it has not yet been processed.
Petroleum is a mixture of organic compounds containing only two elements [carbon and hydrogen].
Oil naturally leaks to the earth through fault lines and cracks in the rocks, accumulating to form tar, asphalt and pitch ponds.
For this reason petroleum as a substitute for petroleum is derived from Greek (from Greek) origin as petroleum, meaning “petra” meaning stone and “oleo” meaning oil, and means oil.
We briefly look at the distillation of crude oil and its contents.
The products refined from the liquid fractions of crude oil can be placed into ten main categories. These main products are further refined to create materials more common to everyday life. The ten main products of petroleum are:
Asphalt is commonly used to make roads. It is a colloid of asphaltenes and maltenes that is separated from the other components of crude oil by fractional distillation. Once asphalt is collected, it is processed in a de-asphalting unit, and then goes through a process called “blowing” where it is reacted with oxygen to make it harden. Asphalt is usually stored and transported at around 300° Fahrenheit.
Diesel is any fuel that can be used in a diesel engine. Diesel is produced by fractional distillation between 392° Fahrenheit and 662° Fahrenheit. Diesel has a higher density than gasoline and is simpler to refine from crude oil. It is most commonly used in transportation.
Fuel oil is any liquid petroleum product that is burned in a furnace to generate heat. Fuel oil is also the heaviest commercial fuel that is produced from crude oil. The six classes of fuel oil are: distillate fuel oil, diesel fuel oil, light fuel oil, gasoil, residual fuel oil, and heavy fuel oil. Residual fuel oil and heavy fuel oil are known commonly as navy special fuel oil and bunker fuel; both of these are often called furnace fuel oil.
Almost half of all crude oil refined in the United States is made into gasoline. It is mainly used as fuel in internal combustion engines, like the engines in cars. Gasoline is a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and olefins, although the specific ratios of these parts depends on the refinery where the crude oil is processed. Gasoline refined beyond fractional distillation is often enhanced with iso-octane and ethanol so that it is usable in cars.
Gasoline is called different things in different parts of the world. Some of these names are: petrol, petroleum spirit, gas, petrogasoline, and mogas.
Kerosene is collected through fractional distillation at temperatures between 302° Fahrenheit and 527° Fahrenheit. It is a combustible liquid that is thin and clear. Kerosene is most commonly used as jet fuel and as heating fuel. In the early days of oil, kerosene replaced whale oil in lanterns. In the early 21st century, kerosene was used to power New York City Transit buses. Now, kerosene is used as fuel in portable stoves, kerosene space heaters, and in liquid pesticides.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Liquefied petroleum gas is a mixture of gases that are most often used in heating appliances, aerosol propellants, and refrigerants. Different kinds of liquefied petroleum gas, or LPG, are propane and butane. At normal atmospheric pressure, liquefied petroleum gas will evaporate, so it needs to be contained in pressurized steel bottles.
Lubricating oils consist of base oils and additives. Mineral oils are manufactured by special processes called: solvent extraction, catalytic dewaxing, hydrocracking, and isohydromerization. Different lubricating oils are classified as paraffinic, naphthenic, or aromatic. Lubricating oils are used between two surfaces to reduce friction and wear. The most commonly-known lubricating oil is motor oil, which protects moving parts inside an internal combustion engine.
Paraffin wax is a white, odorless, tasteless, waxy solid at room temperature. The melting point of paraffin wax is between 117° Fahrenheit and 147° Fahrenheit, depending on other factors. It is an excellent electrical insulator, second only to Teflon®, a specialized product of petroleum. Paraffin wax is used in drywall to insulate buildings. It is also an acceptable wax used to make candles for the Jewish Menorah.
Bitumen, commonly known as tar, is a thick, black, sticky material. Refined bitumen is the bottom fraction obtained by the fractional distillation of crude oil. This means that the boiling point of bitumen is very high, so it does not rise in the distillation chamber. The boiling point of bitumen is 977° Fahrenheit. Bitumen is used in paving roads and waterproofing roofs and boats. Bitumen is also made into thin plates and used to soundproof dishwashers and hard drives in computers.
Petrochemicals are the chemical products made from the raw materials of petroleum. These chemicals include: ethylene, used to make anesthetics, antifreeze, and detergents; propylene, used to produce acetone and phenol; benzene, used to make other chemicals and explosives; toluene, used as a solvent and in refined gasoline; and xylene is used as a solvent and cleaning agent.